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The Atlas moth (Attacus atlas) is a large saturniid moth found in the tropical and subtropical forests of Southeast Asia, and is common across the Malay archipelago.
Atlas moths were often considered the largest moths in the world in terms of total wing surface area, but recent sources confer this title upon the Hercules Moth from New Guinea and northern Australia. Their wingspans are also amongst the largest, reaching over 25 cm (10 in). Females are appreciably larger and heavier than the males.
Atlas moths are said to be named after either the Titan of Greek mythology, or their map-like wing patterns. In Hong Kong the Cantonese name translates as "snake's head moth", referring to the apical extension of the forewing, which bears a more than passing resemblance to a snake's head. Japan only has the A. a. ryukyuensis subspecies which is native to the Yaeyama Islands, principally Yonaguni, and as such is called the Yonaguni-san (��ʥ��˥������ǹ��ϡ�?, "Yonaguni silkworm"). It is said to be the inspiration for the movie monster Mothra.
The largest lepidopteran in terms of wingspan is thought to be the White Witch, Thysania agrippina. A record specimen of Attacus atlas from Java measured 262 mm, while Thysania are claimed to be about 270�C280 mm (11 in). Based on some spread specimens and angle of wing, actual measurements of around 289 mm have been estimated.
In India, Atlas moths are cultivated for their silk in a non-commercial capacity; unlike that produced by the related Silkworm moth (Bombyx mori), Atlas moth silk is secreted as broken strands. This brown, wool-like silk is thought to have greater durability and is known as fagara. Atlas moth cocoons have been employed as purses in Taiwan.